probably knows more about these issues than many of us combined. he will be joining us. >> the aclu and the drug policy alliance are advocating for federal legislative change. my coalition co-chair will be talking about litigation and state reforms. i am going to focus on the federal and legislative response, some of the history, and details about what i am talking about today. the aclu were some federal disenfranchisement from three angles. we litigate in court, will lobby in federal and state legislatures, and we engage in public education. as we face another important election, there are an estimated 5.3 million americans who will not be able to vote because of the result of criminal convictions. this is despite the fact that the supreme court repeatedly has said that voting is a fundamental right. most with criminal convictions are barred from the polls. 48 out of 50 states have laws that bar citizens with criminal convictions from bidding in some manner. two other states permanently in franchise criminals with felony convictions. there are 5.3 million americans who cannot vote.